Before going in depth with my proposed research analysis, I would like to acknowledge the contribution and support I have received from the institutions and people who have made this moment possible. I owe this scholarship to the Brazilian Government through CAPES – a Foundation affiliated with the Ministry of Education, as well as the license granted by PUC-GO – Pontifical University of Goiás; I would also like to thank my department colleagues, namely Romilson Martins, Raquel Marra and also the provost for research Milca Severino. Furthermore, I would like to express my sincere gratitude to Werklund School of Education, University of Calgary, and in particular to Prof. John Friesen who accepted my project and provided an intellectual space where I felt welcomed and comfortable to pursue my research.
My original project proposes a study on education and cultural identity. The project focused on the Portuguese and Brazilian communities in Canada, in order to develop a research report on the negative and positive effects on youth when exposed to different cultural environment. First and foremost discusses how these positive and negative aspects affect the immigrant’s feelings and views towards his/her native culture, when exposed to a new cultural environment. And, more particularly, to analyze a bi-lingual attempt in a Portuguese school to preserve the language and other cultural traces among youth (major Canadian-born) in order to link them with their parents’ country of origin.
Oliveira calls the attention to the fact that many are forced by their parents to attend Portuguese courses and cultural events within the community. Among young Portuguese and Portuguese descendants some feel excluded from Portuguese institutions or ashamed of being considered an immigrant or outsider. Oliveira says that “they might retain that culture and language if it brought them some benefits and if it were not, a source of embarrassment to them”.
According to Burke, the foreign groups try to get isolated in order to maintain their identity. It is important to know if the Portuguese and the Brazilian, as alien communities, are getting isolated or assimilating local culture. As identity is defined relatively – i.e. “established by marking symbolic relation to other identities”, it is also important to verify if the youngsters are assuming double life, getting homogenized (hybrid) or just refusing their native culture, deepening a possible crisis of identity.
This particular topic has been chosen to approach the multiculturalism debate. From a wide philosophical perspective four premises will be launched in order to discuss the positioning of the ‘self’ and of the ‘other’ in the construction of the Western World; Then moving to the Brazilian example of cultural hybridity, I will try to make a comparison with the Canadian cultural mosaic, so to provide a discussion on how educational policies and school practices have been improving the multicultural understanding and also the recognition of cultural differences.
- The self and the other
In all over the world the influx of immigrants originating from different nations always brings a significant failure to the ideal vision of homogenized and distinct culture of a host society. The intercourses have been delineating the cultural configurations of humankind for centuries, with higher or lower levels of mingling. The diasporic movement of Hebrew people to Egypt, and from there to Canaan and, in a not so linear historic axis to all the nations, has in reality endeavored a thriving identity, despite enduring times such as the inquisition in the Middle Ages and the holocaust in the modern times. Although there is a persistent religious unity, based in the Torah, the Jews from South Europe and the ones from Russia or from Ethiopia, or still from modern America, are so different from one another in an extent which can be seen in nowadays Israel. Such as the example of the glorious ancient Greeks, who regarded the others as savage barbarians to be used as slaves, when not annihilated. But even that so high qualified culture – especially from Athens at the time – can not deny its oriental roots and the contributions donated by the surroundings. So to add the Roman dominance for centuries and also the following Christian cultural and political influence, the West has been built over a miscellaneous cement interconnected by realms of different languages, ethnicities and customs.
Built in cross-cultural encounters, however, Western world has not developed a pluralistic perspective of tolerance and respect. Instead, it has been torn apart in cleansing wars, tribal rivalries, religious clashes and deadly boundaries isolationisms up to a hobbesian condition of all against all. The perplexity takes our souls when those boundaries are crossed by violence and wrath – eliminating any ethics possibility. From the imperialist ideologies to local diffusionist movements the leitmotif is quite the same: to impose the self, seeking to subvert and replace the otherness’ logic.
To trace this phenomenon we do not need to go back to Hellenic times but just pinpoint Cartesian cogito as the humanist turn and the most important manifestation of the self: Je pense, donc je sui (I think, therefore, I am). The world outside, including the other reality, is conditioned to myself: my understanding, my reason and my intellectual world as I conceive them. From a philosophical perspective to an anthropological analysis required to discuss multiculturalism, we may say that the rational self, free from the former objective reason – provided by a theological view – developed a subjective reason capable of rethinking the world in all its substantial components, even the cultural ones. But grounded on a European historical context of national states formation – after the failure of the Christendom as a universal domain -, the option was the reaffirmation of man itself not in a possible idea of the homo empathicus version, but in a warlike version of the homo politikus (zoón politikón) to whom the other was nothing, but the non-self to be destroyed, the one so different and weird enough to be feared and fulminated as a threat, when not “an object of desire or derision”.
We are aware of the Illuminist intentions of taking foreign figures as a critical reference to attack the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries’ social, religious and political behavior. Voltaire (1694-1778) and Montesquieu (1689-1755) took oriental characters to criticize European procedures. And the famous writings of Rousseau (1712-1778) on the theory of the natural man reminded the “good savage” of the New World. As Rousseau points out:
The example of savages, almost all of whom have been found in this state, seems to confirm that the human race had been made to remain in it always; that this state is the veritable youth of the world; and that all the subsequent progress has been in appearance so many steps toward the perfection of the individual, and in fact toward the decay of the species.
According to Rousseau, in such a state the human beings had few “passions” that, not yet deteriorated by social relations, could keep men in a comfortable living. The main natural passion or faculty is the amour de soi (self love) to preserve itself from danger and enhance self preservation. In a kind of an extension of this one, there is an empathic feeling upon the other, namely pitié (piety), so to outline man’s goodness. This natural gift makes man a real homo empathicus, in such a level to live without harming others and, if the case, helping them. Among other philosophes and writers from the enlightening century, Rousseau is maybe the only one not to see the other, the different, as an exotic or a burlesque creature to be used merely as a metaphor to criticize the Europeans.
Although good examples, the allegories used by Illuminist thinkers have been not able to foment a compliant vision toward alien cultures. The “infidel” Moor and the so-called “soulless” Indians or still the Sub-Saharan Africans were as to say exotic portrait of the other not to be received as equals, but to be exposed among the nobles, appreciated by full audience theatres’ bucks, and admired by public fairs’ customers. What in summary leads us to affirm that from a feared beast assumption to a fanciful foreigner apprehension, the other has not been integrated because it inhabited realms far beyond the “civilized” world’s boundaries. It dwelt right in the land it belonged to: the wonderland of fantastic beings – a reign of dreams but to remain far away. Or at least naïve and yielding creatures to be dominated and brought to a more “real” dimension of the “existing” world: the European society with its stoned buildings, cathedrals and castles.
That leads us to launch four premises as follow: 1) It is never easy to accept the other; 2) The other has been historically seen as a threat to be eliminated or subdued; 3) There must be no other, but others; and 4) The other ought to be complementary, not opposed.
As I have argued, the Western world has been built on the principle of the self, leading to an ethnocentric reason which has guided human relations of all kind. It has never been an easy task to establish an empathicus relationship with the different, with the ones who dress up in weird costumes; speak hard comprehensible tongues; organize themselves in blatant or awkward groups or just behave in a way never seen before. As oddly different, the other raises suspicion and turns to be unpredictable. Consequently, the unshakable different must be avoided, isolated, thrown away, locked up to be analyzed and dominated when not made out into ashes. Even within the same society the ones who were born as “monsters”, concerning biological freaks or illness deformations, i.e. the so-called abnormals, were ostracized by the “normal” ones whatsoever. Foucault, in his History of madness, has demonstrated that every hardly different, including the mentally ill, crippled, demonized, sodomites, witches, wrathfull, subversive, and any kind of malign element would be put in the flowing down estutifera navis all together. Wherever the ship docked, her gruesome crew would jump down and endeavor to survive.
The discovery of the New World has perhaps been the most important event to fuel the Old World new perception of the other. Far beyond, across the ocean, a range variety of different species unveiled human diversity. Despite Spanish, Portuguese, French and English exploration of America, and the vast exploitation of the land and the peoples – including the black element brought from Africa -, many interchanges have been established as a result of those encounters. That is evident on clothes, food and all kind of habits developed in a hybrid way, not forgetting to mention the interethnic crossing, like the Métis in Canada, or the Cholos throughout Spanish America, or still the case of Brazilian melting pot.
- Brazilian hybridity
With continental proportion, the former Portuguese America served as the main destination for the Lusitanian colonial enterprise. First based in brazilwood extraction, over three hundred years, the economic exploration soon evolved gold and diamond mining, slave trade and huge sugarcane plantation. Apart of the economic aspect, the presence of the “white” element and its dominance stretched itself in subtle ways. The huge territory was inhabited by numerous tribes prior to the new element landing – with distinct languages and ethnic configuration. But instead of a vast warfare clash of cultures, the approach and the relationship process established opportunistic alliances, not completely free from occasional fighting, that ended up in an intermingled environment. Ranging from an interpretation of the natives as noble savages to soulless cannibals, the Catholic Portuguese launched a big effort to “civilize” the indigenous population in many ways, including taking the native women to be baptized and also married.
In this sense, the Catholic faith has been an important justification to legitimate Portuguese conquests and the imposition of culture. Nevertheless, as Wagley affirms, “the Brazilian national culture is not simply a Portuguese way of life transposed to the New World, but a unique development of diverse heritage molded into a distinctive whole”, since the alien masters have been acculturated by new customs they apprehended from natives and slaves. Even the Jesuits tried to understand native cultures, speak their languages and mingle some aspects of living so to convert them. That is why the Catholic faith, and specially the Jesuit Order, has played a central role in the colonial history, as well as in the Brazilian character. Not free from collateral effects, a popular Catholicism emerged and brought forth a numerous legends, traditions and religious manifestations of all sort, apart from the Church orthodoxy.
Beyond that, the Portuguese first colonizers (single men) lusted the charm of native women so that they got mixed with the natives, not to convert them but to feed their fleshy impulses. And, after fetching black slaves, the lusting experience included the sensuous black female so that the “mass” created “a hybrid population and [establish] a way of life adapted to local conditions”. That`s why African cultural elements are so strong in Brazil, so that the great sociologist Gilberto Freyre described how African influences have been transmitted to the European masters.
This kind of heritage has influenced even the aftermost immigrants who arrived in nineteenth and twentieth centuries from other parts of Europe and Asia. German, French, Dutch, Spanish, Italian, Greek, Libanese, Russian, Ucranian, Polish, Jews, Chinese, Japanese and many others came to accept the tangle, so that interethnic marriages became normal. Therefore it is quite impossible to stereotype a Brazilian figure or to classify who is white or who is black. In general terms, the mixture of Western and non-Western realities (in the sense of Orient and Occident polarity, as Bhabha puts it), as well as traditional and modern cultures became what some scholars call it the “Brazilian puzzle”. The wide crossing made, for example, Catholics absorb some practices of African religions (syncretism), easing the toughness of Western institutions. What leads us to understand the case of some political and economic institutions operated by personal relations, as well as the adaption of rules and laws according to the situation, according to the person or to the benefits one will get.
It is known worldwide the cultural movement called “anthropophagy” (kind of intellectual cannibalism) as the modern manifestation of Brazilian culture in the beginning of last century. The incorporation of foreign elements in order to “eat” them so to take the best of them, has produced famous icons and wonders, as Bossa Nova, Samba and MPB (Popular Brazilian Music), along with many kind of dances and artistic manifestations, as the famous mixture of dance and fighting called Capoeira.
Rather than regarding Brazilian society as diverse, multicultural, we ought to call it hybrid. Although hybridity is a risky notion, it is the best word to translate the dynamic interchanges that have historically occured in the country. In a place where Huntington’s thesis of the clash of civilizations would happen, even in small portions, the miscellanea built a transcultured people, a new element to deny its nobodyness. Taking the words of a famous Brazilian anthropologist, as the ones born in American continent who were no more European, nor full blooded native, nor African anymore, they were nobody. To him, the hybrid specie means the triumph over the previous condition, and a lesson to the world.
Different than Canadian cultural configuration, Brazilian society may be called multiple or diverse only in terms of regionalism. Cultural regions have been developed along the centuries with particular aspects that have nothing to do with race, but to language accent, food, songs, dances, popular beliefs and artisan craft and also folk stereotypes regarding personalities and behavior. As Wagley depicts them very well, the Amazon Valley gave birth to a dramatic figure: the mameluco (brown complexion, straight black hair, short stature), resulting from intermarriages of the European and the natives who was the nobody who gave support to the rubber trade, fishing, hunting and gold mining activities to survive. This character is regarded as lazy, resigned and religious (in popular Catholicism flavored by surviving Indian customs). The whole Amazon region is a remarkable birthplace of myths and popular medicines, along with the Northeast region with its outnumbered mystic legends and brave characters. The sertão (backlands) sprouted a strong man for dwelling a region exploited by huge sugarcane plantations throughout colonial times, which created an aristocratic, paternalistic, semifeudal and hard society, very hierarchic in its vertical structure. Apart from Portuguese, African and Indian elements, many descendants from Dutch and French settlers, along with few Sephardic Jews, gypsies and Arabians endured arid terrains to raise cattle and endeavor subsistent home business or even wandering street vendors. The Southeast region, covering the most urbanized and industrialized states, has been the best one to raise cattle, crops and entrepreneurship. That is the reason people from this area is regarded as energetic and efficient businessmen. The central and the West part may be considered an extension of the first bandeiras (exploring voyages made by colonial settlers from São Paulo in search of gold and slaves into hinterlands) which produced a country zone, with rural aspects. Like in the hillbilly English spoken in Texas, the Portuguese spoken in this area (and also in inner parts of Southeast region) has quite the same accent. To exemplify, the “r” is pronounced like in the English word “form” (/fɔː(r)m/). Finally, the South – due to its subtropical weather – has been the main destination to German, Ucracian, Russian, Italian, Spanish and Slovak people. Then, isolated from the rest of the country (during colonial times), they developed their own version of Brazilian national culture, with hard European accents. Most agrarian, the Southerners introduced mechanized agriculture and high tech technology in an extent that nowadays it may be considered the wealthier region (in terms of living standards). Then, they feel closer to the developed São Paulo, but with a feeling of superiority regarding to the rest of the nation.
Nevertheless, with many differences and contrasts, the nation has achieved a homogenous hybrid national culture: same language (Portuguese); same basic food (rice, beans, meat, eggs and salad); same architecture; same feelings (at least during Soccer World Cup); same laws and the same social relations, most based in informal, face-to-face contacts from which derives the jeitinho (jay-tchee’-nyoo) – a personalist way, a resource to subvert the order, to by-pass hard rules and to facilitate personal achievements. There is no English translation to it and it is more than “to pull a string”, “to cut through the red tape”, “to work your magic” or other similar expressions which do not mean breaking rules or reinterpreting laws pragmatically into an easier mechanism to favor someone. This identity trace is considered, by many scholars, a step backwards with respect to First World and a hindrance in becoming a modern society, although it may be reckoned nowadays as the sixth economic power in the global sphere. Although a social institution, the jeitinho must surpassed and substituted to a more universalistic behavior.
There is not a specific multicultural policy. The Constitution terms are generalist, as to say “preserve the cultural heritage”, “enhance cultural development” and “acknowledgement of native cultures and territories” and not a word on multiculturalism. The education law (LDB, Bill approved in November 20, 1996 under # 9.394/96) advocates “cultural manifestations” as part of the education process. Concerning intercultural and bi-lingual schools, the law refers only to indigenous people. The academic production tends to be more critical, analyzing the social conflicts in a struggle of powers, as the official and media discourses generally disguise the differences in order to reify a homogenous vision of the national culture. A liberal vision of cultural plurality entangles through diversity but in a folkloric approach, dodging from a critical discussion on existing inequalities, prejudices and stigmatizations.
- Canadian multiculturalism
As well exposed by John Friesen (When cultures clash), there has been a significant growth on multiculturalism in Canada since the last quarter of the last century. Due to the public emphasis on the importance of immigration and on the maintenance of original cultures, Canadian government may be considered an instigator of multicultural ideology. Started officially in 1971, the support policy on the issue grew in a different direction of the Brazilian “melting pot”. Incoming groups get more or less integrated to national culture (in English or French version), although keeping their original culture background on language, clothes, food, religion with their distinctive values. They are encouraged to do so, as to contribute to the Canadian mosaic.
From a romantic view to a more realistic one, the policy poses some challenges to social adjustments and equality. Political movements as the First Nations “Idle no more” and the Ontario Portuguese “Invisible no more” may be taken as examples of the problems posed to the country. The immigrants general political apathy may put them backwards in terms of social and political integration. With no participation, the approved laws and policies may function against the wishes of those minorities. Otherwise, isolationism gets to the point of existing “little Portugal”, “little Italy”, “little China”, etc. as hermetic communities, or urban enclaves, with particular rules to copy the original virtues as well as their flaws. In the individual aspect, let us take the example of aged immigrants to whom it will certainly be hard to get integrated, if they do not speak the language or remain resilient in not accepting the new environment with its “oddities”. That gets worse when the provincial governments do not offer a cultural reception program, or do not promote equalized employability program. As happened to Portuguese women in the cleaning industry in Toronto who had to go on strike, in 1984, to have their rights recognized.
The bilingualism guaranteed by the Constitution Acts has asymmetrical application in daily situations. One of the consequences is the fact that the immigrants to Québec have access only to French-language public schools for their children, in the same way they can count only on English-language public schools if they head to the other provinces. Until the 1940s and 1950s Canadian multiculturalism where restricted to English and French cultures, along with the native ones. After the Canadian Bill of Rights, implemented by Diefenbaker’s government in 1960, the influx of a huge variety of immigrants began changing the social fabric into a colored patchwork that it is possible to see a Sikh and a Muslim wearing a national icon, as the RCMP (Royal Canadian Mounted Police) uniform.
The positive role of that process is that the co-existing cultures may get somehow interrelated, influencing one another, and yet remain distinct in its own configuration, if they avoid the ghettoization process. Is that the case of the First Nation natives? Yet, the case of the religious restricted groups as the Hutterites, the Mennonites or the Amish folks? Without questioning their differences, they avoid much interrelationship with outside world and eschew modern and high-tech devices. If groups like these ones survive with no contrary imposition, inasmuch Canadian government endures multicultural policy along with economic growth and welfare, multicultural policy will remain as the right way to be followed up.
- Challenges to education
Hybrid or multiple, every society has an imposing model, used as the general sphere of encounters, to which everyone must attain. In the case of Brazil, hybridity melted the original cultures in new one, even preserving certain cultural elements. However, everyone assimilated the Portuguese model, even the gypsies may be considered fully integrated nowadays, not to mention the isolated cases of some Mennonite settlementa and of the natives living completely isolated in the jungles, living in tribes with few contacts or no contact at all with the “white” element. But what happened in Canada in small scale with the Métis (from métisse, mestizo, meaning mixed – relating to French and native intermarriages offspring), happened in Brazil in full scale. At present days, almost everyone has Indian or African origin. Even the most Caucasian-like figure if its family roots stretch into three or four generations backward.
A similar phenomenon may be the ones living close to the borders with Hispanic countries, as Uruguay, Paraguay or Bolivia. The intermarriage spawn are generally bilingual and bicultural. Likewise the indigenous youth who dwell bordering areas, despite the difference that only a tiny number of them has the privilege (if it is) of wearing feathers in the same time of holding a mobile phone and also an undergraduation diploma. As the borderers attend elementary and basic education, so do the native children and young people who are increasingly looking for more schooling. In this case curriculum contents must not ignore local cultures, nor neglect teaching universal values and scientific contents.
In any case, as it happens to the Métis, children from one or another crossing culture certainly struggle with the problem of personal identity. That is a reliable statement to base the study on the Portuguese and Brazilian youngsters born or raised in Canada. In the case of the Portuguese community a dual culture is possible when it is mandatory to the youth to sing Portuguese songs, visit relatives, travel to Portugal and reinforce the feeling of identification with the Portuguese roots. In the opposite, many Canadian-born individuals make a big effort to a fully self-integration, sometimes avoiding the Portuguese legacy. An illustration of this fact can be in Coelho’s book: Small stories, great people: Portuguese pioneers in Canada. When we look to photographs of the Portuguese pioneers in festivities, clubs and cultural events, only adults are in the scene. It is rare the presence of children and teenagers. Finally, in a different situation, the most problematic one, the cultural identity for one reason or another gets weak in relation to both nations, and the person feels himself always as an outsider – here or there.
As Friesen argues, “all ethnic groups which have not assimilated the British model, have been disadvantaged in some way”. As a “salad bowl”, Canadian society maintains a pluralistic identity. Nevertheless, the Anglo-Saxon model is clearly the pattern to be followed. To get people fully integrated this aspect must not be relegated. But the burden shall not only fall over the schools or over the teachers’ pedagogical practices. It implies a political taking action to equalize educational opportunities to everybody, including the culturally different student. More than that, it calls to a national program of recognizing the different ethnics present in daily life, making any effort to eliminate stereotyping, stigmatization and prejudice. As Friesen points out, “eradicating stereotypes that are false or even harmful is not a task limited to classroom”, mainly considering the fact that schools reproduce society’s reality, not the contrary.
Taking the case of Brazil, this social reproduction is present in the schools. As historically the black people have been marginalized, even after the official slave abolition in 1888, in the present days the poor favelas (shantytowns) are most inhabited by Afro-Brazilians, as are the criminal records. That demystifies the “racial democracy” ideology, advocated by Freyre. From a positivity of whiteness – ranging from the population whitening policy of the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth, to the preference of Caucasoid figures on media advertisements – the perspective remains rather unchanged since in many cases outpours a disavowal of the Negroid type. A strong heritage from colonial times, those narcissistic and aggressive positions fuel the popular thinking, and feed the maintenance of old stereotypes. Though controversial, that has been the main reason to which affirmative action policies have been implemented to promote quotas for blacks in the University. Though many critics say it is impossible to define who is black and who is not in Brazilian puzzle, since between a dark black and a quasi-white brunette there are numerous gradations in the color spectrum.
Although hybridity has developed mixed society, the country is far from a racial harmony and a peaceful integration. Still anchored in patriarchal values, it is hard to see a black person in the higher spheres of social relations, in the upper crust political posts, among the wealthiest businessmen, scholars and also graduated in the most selected professions. And, tied to the same values, the women have played a secondary role in the moral spectrum. They have been regarded as the fragile sex and docile housewives for decades till changing waves began to flow and destroy old taboos from the 1960s on. Significant social improvements are a recent issue in Brazilian panorama, so to mention a woman now holding the Republic’s presidency.
So to build a democratic and just society, education must focus not only in the acquisition of skills and scientific components. Beyond that, it must develop a critical pedagogy in which students may see themselves as agents of social transformation in the same time of intercultural promotion. But diversity nowadays is not limited to ethnic patterns, but also toward less discussed phenomena, as religious multiplicity, gender inequalities, sexism and physical handicap inclusion policies. Cooperation, instead of competition must be the tune to play the band against neoliberal investments orchestrated by world economic institutions and capitalist enterprises, since education is not a mere merchandize to be simply purchased, with no values implication or cultural assessment. Nor is it a way of depositing information in the students’ minds to be withdrawn in a certain moment to attend material needs, according to Freire’s reflexions. That is to say, beyond racism, sexism, and other “ism”, class exploitation is the worst form of domination, and so must be fought back.
In summary, teaching as an act of communication, of cultural interaction, is posed to pronounce the world in a better speech – the one not only rhetorical, sophistical or demagogic, but the one whose words are attained to the real problems our society (or societies) faces in the complex present times. To quote another Canadian scholar, I would like to finish this text saying that:
Because of growing ethnic, cultural, racial, and religious diversity throughout the world, citizenship education needs to be changed in substantial ways to prepare students to function effectively in the 21st century. Citizens in the new century need the knowledge, attitudes, and skills required to function in their ethnic and cultural communities and beyond their cultural borders and to participate in the construction of a national civic culture that is amoral and just community that embodies democratic ideals and values, such as those embodied in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Students also need to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to become effective citizens in the global community.
Notes and References:
 In: Teixeira, Carlos & Da Rosa, Victor M. P. (Eds.) The portuguese in Canada: diasporic challenges and adjustment. 2nd. ed. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2009 (pp. 91-108).
 Idem, p. 96.
 Burke, Peter. Hibridismo cultural. Trad. Leila Souza Mendes. São Leopoldo, RS: Editora UNISINOS, 2003. (Coleção Aldus, 18), p. 710.
 Silva, Tomaz Tadeu da; Hall, Stuart & Woodward, Kathryn (Eds.). Identidade e diferença: a perspectiva dos estudos culturais. 12ª. ed. Petrópolis, RJ: Vozes, 2012, P. 13.
 Idem, p. 90.
 As Thomas Hobbes points out in his Leviathan writing that civil war and the brute situation of a state of nature may come to “the war of all against all”. The situation, according to him, may be avoided by a strong government.
 Rifkin, J. The Empathic Civilization: The Race to Global Consciousness in a World in Crisis. New York, Penguin Group, 2010.
 Bhabha, Homi K. The location of culture. London: New York: Routledge, 1998, p. 67.
 Voltaire, Zadig ou la Destinée (“Zadig, or The Book of Fate”). Paris: FLAMMARION, 2013. – whose protagonist is a Babylonian philosopher.
 Monstesquieu. Persian letters (2004). London: Penguin Classics. The book tells the experience of two Persian (Iranian) noblemen, Rica and Usbek, who travelled through Europe writing down their critical impressions.
 Rousseau, Jean-Jacques. Oeuvres complètes. Paris: Gallimard (Bibliothéque de la Plêiade), 1964. 4 volumes, p. 171.
 Paré, François. Monsters and prodigies.
 Foucault, Michel. History of madness.
 Now with 8.514.876 km², Brazil is the fifth biggest country in the world.
 Wagley, Charles. An introduction to Brazil. Revised Edition. New York and London: Columbia University Press, 1963, p. 9.
 Loc. cit.
 Freyre, Gilberto. The masters and the slaves: a study in the development of Brazilian civilization. (Trad. By Samuel Putnam from Casa Grande e Senzala). New York, 1946.
 Loc. cit.
 Hess, David J. & DaMatta, Roberto (ed.). The Brazilian puzzle. New York, Columbia University Press, 1995.
 Kraidy, Marwan M. Hybridity or the cultural logic of Globalization. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2005.
 Huntington, Samuel. The clash of civilizationss and the remaking of world order. New York: Touchstone, 1996.
 Ribeiro, Darcy. O povo brasileiro. A formação e o sentido de Brasil. 2ª ed. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 1995.
 Loc. cit.
 Cunha, Euclides da. Rebellion in the backlands (Transl. by Samuel Putanam from Os sertões). 16. Ed. Chicago: 1944.
 According to Barbosa, Lívia Neves de H. The Brazilian jeitinho: An exercise in National Identity. In: Hess, David J. & DaMatta, Roberto (ed.). The Brazilian puzzle. New York, Columbia University Press, 1995. (p. 35-48).
 Friesen, John. When cultures clash: cases studies in multiculturalism. Calgary, AB: Detselig Enterprises Limited, 1985.
 Specially if we take the 13th Canadian Prime Minister (1957-1963) John G. Diefenbaker’s word seriously: “I liken Canada to a garden. A mosaic is a static thing with each element separate and divided from the others. Canada is not that kind of country. Neither is it a “melting pot” in which the individuality of each element is destroyed in order to produce a new and totally different element. It is rather a garden into which have been transplanted the hardiest and brightest of flowers from any lands, each retaining in its new environment the best of the qualities for which it was loved and prized in its native land”. (Apud Friesen, 1985, p. 2).
 Teixeira, Carlos & Da Rosa, Victor M. P. (Eds.) The portuguese in Canada: diasporic challenges and adjustment. 2nd. ed. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2009.
 Coelho, J. M. Small stories, great people: Portuguese pioneers in Canada. Toronto: Creative 7 Inc., 2004.
 Loc. cit., p. 23.
 Loc. cit. P. 13.
 Loc. cit.
 Freire, Paulo. Pedagogy of the opressed. New York: Bloomsbury, 2012.